Chapter 6Clinical Reasoning, Decisionmaking, and Action: Patricia Benner;1 Ronda G. Clinical reasoning and judgment are examined in relation to other modes of thinking used by clinical nurses in providing quality health care to patients that avoids adverse events and patient harm.
This paper focuses on reflection, interaction, and feedback, not only to reinforce learning, but to raise learning to higher levels of critical reflective thinking.
It demonstrates the value of interaction and learning communities to enhance quality and effectiveness of online learning, especially in problem solving and critical thinking skills. The Role of Critical Thinking in the Online Learning Environment Kelly Bruning Abstract Research indicates that critically reflective learning provides students with an opportunity to evaluate concepts learned and apply them to their experiences, contemplating its affect on future learning.
This process occurs in a learning community where student interaction and feedback fuels the learning process leading to a higher level of critical reflective thinking for the learner.
The challenge for online instructors is how to incorporate critical thinking in the online environment in an effective manner. This paper addresses the issue of critical thinking and how it is applied in an actual online environment through an interactive exercise created by the instructor.
The exercise not only fuels student learning but also creates a learning community in which students interact and share ideas.
The BUS Create-A-Problem exercise described in this paper incorporates critical thinking in the online environment to meet the goals of developing reflective critical thinking in students and to nurture and online learning community that can be used as a model for other online instructors.
The second was to provide usability and functionality of navigating the course. An interaction component among students needed to be incorporated into the course to foster a learning community.
The instructor wanted to reinforce concepts but was faced with the challenge of how to post questions to the discussion board and encourage interaction with other learners.
Northwestern Michigan College has a campus-wide movement to incorporate five core general education learning outcomes in all classes. They are summarized as follows: The ability to problem solve.
The ability to communicate with other learners. The ability to use the English language in communication. The ability to read and summarize.
The ability to apply critical thinking concepts to course concepts. It is the goal of Northwestern Michigan College to incorporate as many of these core competencies across the curriculum.
Not only did the course need to be designed with functionality and usability in mind but it also needs to incorporate as many general education outcomes as possible. The challenge to the instructor was to gain an understanding of the online learning platform and to think of ways to incorporate the educational learning outcomes as possible.
Two specific areas needed special attention: Critical thinking is defined in the learning outcomes handout distributed to faculty members at Northwestern Michigan College as "The ability for the student to use independent thinking and incorporate concepts learned to problem solve a realistic situation.
In a traditional classroom the learning community is created through natural socialization of students and designing assignments in which students work in groups. The critical thinking is stimulated when the instructor asks open-ended thought provoking questions in which student need to tap into their analytical thinking skills and apply the knowledge to the problem.
Since students in the online platform work independently through the computer technology medium, the instructor needed to create a way to promote interaction among students similar to group learning in the face-to face course. The instructor also needed to create critical thinking exercises in which course concepts were reinforced but that students could also relate to.
Key Issues Numerous authors have proposed definitions for critical thinking relative to their own disciplines. This tool measures skill in performing inference, recognition of assumptions, deduction, interpretation, and evaluation of arguments, all of which are used during the process of reflection.
In general, critical thinking is the method of evaluating arguments or propositions and making judgments that can guide the development of beliefs and taking action Astleitner, Glister regarded critical thinking as the most important skill when using the Internet p.
Reinmann-Rotmeier and Mandl as cited by Astleitnerfound in a Delphi-study, that experts from economy and education nominated critical thinking as the most important skill in knowledge management p.
Kraak as cited by Astleitnersaw critical thinking as "an important, perhaps the most important of all present time educational tasks" p.
Critical thinking occupies a special place in the hearts of adult educators, particularly because of its connections to the democratic tradition that informs the field. Such capacities develop as we learn to think critically. Encouraging critical thinking in adults is therefore integral to the democratic project.
It is also true that critical thinking seems to hold the promise of constituting a universal theory of adult learning and, by implication, a template for adult education practice Brookfield, If critical thinking is a uniquely adult learning process, then fostering critical thinking becomes, by implication, a uniquely adult educational process.
Critical thinking can be analyzed in terms of both process and purpose, although these two elements are inevitably intertwined.
As a process, critical thinking involves adults in recognizing and researching the assumptions that undergird their thoughts and actions Brookfield, Assumptions are the taken-for-granted beliefs about the world and our place within it that seem so obvious to us that they do not seem to need to be stated explicitly.
Assumptions give meaning and purpose to who we are and what we do. In many ways we are our assumptions.Critical thinking should not be confused with being argumentative or being critical of other people.
Although critical thinking skills can be used in exposing fallacies and bad reasoning, critical thinking can also play an important role in cooperative reasoning and constructive tasks.
Critical thinking is thinking that drills down to the essence of a problem. It is introspective. thinking that questions everything and everyone.
Critical thinking should not be thought of as an effort to refute. any particular choice or decision, but rather as a way to balance evidence, reason, and options. Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, There is limited research on the role of social experience in critical thinking development, but there is some evidence to suggest it is an important factor.
Critical thinking plays a crucial role in evaluating new ideas, selecting the best ones and modifying them if necessary Critical Thinking is crucial for self-reflection. The Role of Critical Thinking in the name implies, critical thinking is not thinking that is critical of others.
It is “fundamental” or “vital” thinking. Critical thinking is thinking that drills down to the essence of a problem.
It is introspective The intellectual roots of critical thinking are as ancient as its etymology. Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and logic to unfamiliar ideas.
It is to consider opinions and situations in an objective way with a non judgmental approach, accepting that others may have a .